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Since 2007, the Chinese government released a set of policies, including targets and planning, financial incentives, and legal requirements, to establish the energy efficiency supervision and management systems for Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings. The policy set made significant progress; from 2005 to 2010, the cumulative energy savings was 329,124 TJ.
Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings (especially government office buildings ), which are high energy consuming buildings, are regarded as the key area for building energy efficiency work. MOHURD and the Ministry of Finance (MOF) therefore released a set of policies and regulations to set up and improve the energy efficiency supervision and management systems for LCP buildings. The overall aim was to reduce the total energy consumption of LCP buildings by 20% and thus to reach energy savings of 11-15 million tce by the end of the 11th five-year period. Central government also setup a special subsidy scheme to support the establishment of the energy efficiency supervision and management system for LCP buildings. Through the implementation of this policy set, China had accomplished energy consumption statistics for 33,000 LCP buildings, performed energy audits for 4850 LCP buildings, published building energy-efficiency performance for almost 6000 LCP buildings, built up real-time monitoring for over 1500 LCP buildings in 9 pilot provinces and cities, and launched 72 resource-saving colleges pilots by the end of 2010 (MOHURD 2010).
|1||关于加强国家机关办公建筑和大型公共建筑节能管理工作的实施意见||Implementation proposals for strengthening the building energy efficiency management work of Government Office Buildings and Large-Scale Public (i.e. commercial and public sector) Buildings|
|2||财政部关于印发《国家机关办公建筑和大型公共建筑节能专项资金管理暂行办法》的通知||Notice on the issuance of 'Interim measures of management of special fund for energy conservation of Government Office Buildings and Large-Scale Public (i.e. commercial and public sector) Buildings '|
|3||国家机关办公建筑和大型公共建筑能源审计导则||Guidelines for energy auditing of Government Office Buildings and Large-Scale Public (i.e. commercial and public sector) Buildings|
|4||国家机关办公建筑和大型公共建筑能耗监测系统建设相关技术导则||Technical guidelines for energy consumption monitoring system construction of Government Office Buildings and Large-Scale Public (i.e. commercial and public sector) Buildings|
|5||公共机构节能条例||Ordinance on Public-Organ Energy Conservation|
|6||关于切实加强政府办公和大型公共建筑节能管理工作的通知||Notice of Strengthening the Implementation of Energy Management in Government Office Buildings and Large-Scale Public (i.e. commercial and public sector) Buildings|
|7||财政部 住房城乡建设部关于进一步推进公共建筑节能工作的通知||Notice of further promoting energy conservation work of public buildings by MOF and MOHURD|
It is a national policy.
In this policy set, the stages of design and construction of Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings are also covered. Therefore, Policy 5 in Policy set 1 i.e. “Design Standards for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings”, is the base standard for new LCP buildings.
China is a large country with different climate conditions and development levels. To bring together all the scattered building energy consumption data, this policy set was designed with a step-by-step strategy - from statistics and audit monitoring to data analysis and retrofitting, from demonstration cities to nationwide projects, which effectively guide public building energy efficiency.
The policy package could be optimised.
To formulate the energy quota standard in the next step, based on the current work in energy statistics, audit, monitoring of Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings
The following pre-conditions are necessary to implement this type of policy:
Agencies or other actors responsible for implementation
Organisations such as - building energy efficiency consulting organizations, energy efficiency testing agencies, building retrofit contractors - are all key for the energy management of Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings.
Technical support agencies should have error correction and analysis capability to deal with the mass data.
Subsidies at an early stage are necessary for implementing energy management in LCP buildings.
Policy 2 specifies the range of the special fund for LCP buildings in three aspects - expenditure of building energy efficiency monitoring and management system establishment, building energy efficiency retrofitting discount loan, and other related expenditure.
In Policy 7, central subsidies provide to retrofitting of LCP buildings in key cities and college buildings with 20 Yuan per m2 as well as to office buildings of the central government
Policy design process includes the pre-study of energy consumption of Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings, stakeholder consultation, expert working meetings, and discussion about policy details among relevant ministries at a central level.
The monitoring of energy consumption in governmental office buildings and LCP buildings is implemented on a step-by-step basis. Beijing, Tianjin, and Shenzhen were selected to be the first group of pilot cities for establishing monitoring platforms of energy consumption for commercial and public sector buildings. These pilots were assessed as being successful and are now expected to be improved further, in particular, by expanding the scope of monitoring. Jiangsu, Inner Mongolia, and Chongqing were selected as the second group of pilot provinces and pilot cities to construct an energy consumption monitoring platform.
Policy 7: The expected energy saving is to reduce the energy consumption per m2 of commercial and public sector buildings by 10%, and Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings by 15% during the 12th Five-Year period, in comparison with the average value of the 11th Five-Year period. For key cities, the reduction of energy consumption in commercial and public sector buildings should be more than 20%, and 30% for LCP buildings, by 2015,. The retrofitted floor area of those key cities should not be less than 4 million m2 within two years after the approval of their application for central subsidy; the retrofitted floor area for college buildings should not be less than 200,000 m2 with energy consumption per m2 reduction of more than 20%.
During the 12th five-year period, the target is to build up 20 provincial energy consumption monitoring platforms and accomplish dynamic energy monitoring for 5000 buildings; to launch the resource-saving colleges pilot work for 200 colleges; implement energy efficiency retrofitting for 50 colleges and more than 10 key cities, covering 60 million m2.
Actors responsible for design
Policy 1: MOHURD, MOF
Policy 2: MOHURD, MOF
Policy 3: MOHURD
Policy 4: MOHURD
Policy 5: State Council of PRC
Policy 6: MOHURD
Policy 7: MOHURD, MOF
Actors responsible for implementation
Local construction and financial administration departments; public building developer, construction companies, building design organizations.
Energy efficiency in Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings is one of the key areas in the annual inspection by MOHURD.
The annual inspection covers the implementation situation of the building energy consumption statistics, auditing, public notification, real-time monitoring of energy consumption in LCP buildings.
The data recorded includes the number of buildings conducting energy consumption statistics, energy audits, and buildings being monitored by the building energy consumption monitoring platforms.
The economic benefits and costs have not been evaluated, because the policy set only addresses the data collection phase. However, a significant amount of subsidies was provided:
The following barriers have been experienced during the implementation of the policy
Given the low incentives offered to the tenants or the property management companies, it is difficult to conduct the building data survey.
Data quality is currently insufficient so that much work is involved in the data analysis stage.
The following measures have been undertaken to overcome the barriers
To regulate the data transfer of the monitoring systems between national and provincial levels, so as to ensure data consistency, integrity and accuracy, MOHURD released the “Regulation of energy consumption monitoring system: data reporting on energy consumption in Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings” in July, 2011 (MOHURD 2011).
Policy 1, 2, 3: The planned energy saving was to reduce the total energy consumption of Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings by 20%, thereby saving 11-15 million tce until the end of the 11th five-year period (2006-2010).
Policy 7: The expected energy saving is to reduce the energy consumption per m2 in public buildings by 10%, and in LCP buildings by 15% during the 12th five-year period (2011-2015). For key cities the reduction of energy consumption in commercial and public sector buildings should be more than 20%, and 30% for LCP buildings, by 2015.
The derived cumulative energy savings from 2005 to 2010 is 11.23 Mtce (Zhou et al. 2011).
During the the 11th five-year period, central financial subsidy was 15.2 billion RMB for existing residential building retrofitting, renewable energy use in buildings, and supervision and management systems for Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings (Annual inspection report MOHURD in 2010). But no specific number for each approach.
The costs of policy: e.g. subsidies should be lower than the high amount of energy costs saved by the Large-scale Commercial and Public sector (LCP) buildings in China. Moreover, this policy set provides a good basis for further developing the energy consumption quota system, which is expected to play an important role in stimulating the target formulation of a 5% reduction in total energy consumption within the building sector, which will be released in the next 2 years (Zhou et al., 2011).