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India

  • 1,267,401,849
  • 3,300,000 km2
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Appliances - Key Information on India

In the residential sector, approximately 38% electricity is consumed in cooling/heating systems, followed by 29% in lighting, 18% in kitchen appliances and 15% in entertainment appliances. Standby power of appliances accounts for nearly 4% of electricity consumption. The appliance penetration in the residences is increasingly rapidly due to rising income levels and easier access to electricity which has resulted into increased electricity consumption in the residential sector.

According to NSSO surveys, number of urban households in India, owning a TV increased from 66% in 2004-05 to 80% in 2011-12 and ownership of refrigerator increased from 32% in 2004-05 to 44% in 2011-12 (NSSO, 2014). As per the current scenario, per household residential electricity consumption is likely to be quadruple in 20 years between 2000 and 2020 (de la Rue du Can et al., 2009).

Electricity consumption breakup in residential sector
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(Source: World Bank, 2008)

References

Authors

  • Rana, Deepak Singh (Lead author)

Colour telivisions

Key message

The penetration rate in India is 179 television sets per 1,000 inhabitants, which when compared to the rest of the world is still quite low. The television market in India is expected to grow at a rate of 19% Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) till 2016. In year 2010 the market size of TV in India was accounting to an amount of INR 297 billion (Singh, Lobo, & Karwa, 2014). Television sets were possessed by nearly 50% of rural households in 2011-12 compared to 26% in 2004-05, and by 80% of urban households in 2011-12 compared to 66% in 2004-05 (MOSPI, 2014).

In addition, there has been a tremendous growth in the number of cable & satellite subscriber households. The total revenue generated by the media and advertisement industry through television accounted to an average of INR 290 billion in the year of 2010 out of which the subscription of cable and satellite accounted for INR 187 billion and the rest of the amount of INR 103 billion was spawned by the advertisement market (FICCI-KPMG, 2015). By the year 2015 it is expected that LED backlight LCD TV will gain popularity and the market share will account around 92% of total TVs present in the stock, and of the CCFL type backlight LCD TV will decrease to 3% making a total market share for LCD TVs around 95% (Park, Phadke, & Shah, 2014).

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Energy Efficient Colour Telivisions in India

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Ceiling fans

Key message

Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates.

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Energy Efficient Ceiling Fans in India

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Air Conditioners

Key message

Window AC and split-unit AC are widely used room air conditioners in India. Room ACs are available in the capacity range of 0.75 to 3 ton of refrigeration (TR) (2.63 kW to 10.55 kW). Best available technology, for example a 5 star rated AC will consume 1711 kWh in a year as compared to 2218 kWh consumed by 1 star rated AC for the same time resulting in energy savings of around 507 kWh in an year. Stock number of ACs for the year 2010 is about 6.9 million units Room air conditioner (AC) demand is growing rapidly at rate of 20% on average per year over the last ten years (2000-2010). The stock is expected to grow up to 37 million units by 2020 and the use of best available technologies could potentially lead to very large energy savings.

Refrigerators

Key message

The refrigerator market in India is divided into two major segments, the direct cool (DC) refrigerators and the frost free refrigerators (FFR) variants. The frost free variant of refrigerator contains a heating element to prevent the formation of frost in the freezer. This heating element consumes additional energy, resulting in higher power consumption by FFRs than DC refrigerators along with a 30-50% increase in the cost as well. Refrigerators find year-long application in India operating for 24 hours a day and for 365 days a year. Refrigerators in India consumed an estimated 14.75 TWh of energy in 2011, including all segments and all volumes while the energy consumption of the FFR segment stood at 6.42 TWh in 2010-2011. Typical inefficient models consume almost double the amount of energy consumed by the Best Available Technologies and hence hold immense potential for energy savings in this sector by shifting to BAT.

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Energy Efficient Refrigerators in India

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Lighting technologies

Key message

Power for lighting accounts for 18% of all power consumption in India, as against 10-12% in developed countries (Indiastat, n.d.). The lighting market landscape in India is divided into incandescent bulbs, fluorescent lighting in the forms of tubular fluorescent lamps (TFLs) and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and light emitting diode (LED) lamps.

The market trend is rapidly changing in favour of fluorescent lighting and LED lamps. For example, due to the growth in market for CFL lighting the manufacturing capacity of these lamps has gone up from 19 million units in 2002 to 730 million pieces per annum in 2011, in India (Electric Lamp and Component Manufacturers Association of India, 2013). The LED market is expected to show a CAGR of almost 30% between 2016 and 2021 (TechSci Research, 2016), reaching a size of almost USD s1,457.8 million by 2019 (Research and Markets, 2014). The government is also taking significant steps to reduce energy consumption in India due to lighting, like BEE’s S&L programme for TFLs and LEDs, the Bachat Lamp Yojna etc. Under the Bachat Lamp Yojana scheme, implemented by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), power distribution companies (DISCOMs) distribute CFLs to residential consumers in exchange for incandescent bulbs and INR1 5 (around 20 EUR cents), which are procured from certain suppliers. In return these suppliers are awarded saleable certified emission reduction credits (Bijli Bachao Team, 2015).

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Energy Efficient Lighting Technologies in India

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Washing machines

Key message

The market for washing machines in India grew from about 600,000 units in 1996-97 to almost 1.4 million units in 2005-06, with a predicted market of 1.6 million units in the consecutive year. This would register a CAGR (Compound annual growth rate) of over 10%. In 2007-08 the estimated market for washing machines is between 2.0 to 2.3 million units. For the 5-year period between 2006-07 and 2011-12 the market for washing machines was estimated to grow at 9.3% (Indiastat, n.d.). The stock of all washing machines in India in 2011 stood at 16.5 million units, out of which rural and urban India contribute 2.2 and 14.3 million units respectively (The World Bank, 2008). According to a DuPont report published in 2013, “Indian Consumer Laundry Study”, only 8.8% of all Indian households owned a washing machine.

In 2011 refrigerators consumed about 672 GWh of energy in India, which was only about 4.6% of the energy consumption by washing machines in the same year. In the year 2021 this figure is estimated to go up to 2,742 GWh. The average per unit energy consumption is considered to be 40.7 kWh in 2011 (The World Bank, 2008).

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Energy Efficient Washing Machines in India

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