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In the residential sector, approximately 38% electricity is consumed in cooling/heating systems, followed by 29% in lighting, 18% in kitchen appliances and 15% in entertainment appliances. Standby power of appliances accounts for nearly 4% of electricity consumption. The appliance penetration in the residences is increasingly rapidly due to rising income levels and easier access to electricity which has resulted into increased electricity consumption in the residential sector.
According to NSSO surveys, number of urban households in India, owning a TV increased from 66% in 2004-05 to 80% in 2011-12 and ownership of refrigerator increased from 32% in 2004-05 to 44% in 2011-12 (NSSO, 2014). As per the current scenario, per household residential electricity consumption is likely to be quadruple in 20 years between 2000 and 2020 (de la Rue du Can et al., 2009).
The penetration rate in India is 179 television sets per 1,000 inhabitants, which when compared to the rest of the world is still quite low. The television market in India is expected to grow at a rate of 19% Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) till 2016. In year 2010 the market size of TV in India was accounting to an amount of INR 297 billion (Singh, Lobo, & Karwa, 2014). Television sets were possessed by nearly 50% of rural households in 2011-12 compared to 26% in 2004-05, and by 80% of urban households in 2011-12 compared to 66% in 2004-05 (MOSPI, 2014).
In addition, there has been a tremendous growth in the number of cable & satellite subscriber households. The total revenue generated by the media and advertisement industry through television accounted to an average of INR 290 billion in the year of 2010 out of which the subscription of cable and satellite accounted for INR 187 billion and the rest of the amount of INR 103 billion was spawned by the advertisement market (FICCI-KPMG, 2015). By the year 2015 it is expected that LED backlight LCD TV will gain popularity and the market share will account around 92% of total TVs present in the stock, and of the CCFL type backlight LCD TV will decrease to 3% making a total market share for LCD TVs around 95% (Park, Phadke, & Shah, 2014).
A large-scale global transition from CCFL-LCD TVs to LED-LCD TVs—which are colloquially referred to as “LED TVs” in India—is expected to occur between 2011 and 2015. LED backlights are expected to account for 100 % of the LCD TV market by 2020 (Park, Phadke, & Shah, 2014). As per 2016 the LED TVs have taken over the CRTs and all other technologies for the television. And the expected market future takeover would be done by OLEDs, once they come over the cost barrier and shorter life span.
Schedule number 11 for televisions specifies the energy labeling requirements for color televisions of diagonal screen upto 215 centimetre and native vertical resolution upto 1920 X 1080 pixels, of CRT, LCD (with CCFL Backlighting), LCD (with LED Backlighting), Plasma technologies and the television types including TV combination unit being manufactured, imported or sold in India (Bureau of Energy Efficiency , 2014).
To qualify as BEE Star labelled product, all TVs and TV Combination Units shall not exceed maximum Annual Energy Consumption (AEC max) derived from the equations mentioned in table 1 and table 4 based on the unit’s native vertical resolution and visible screen area. The maximum Annual Energy Consumption is expressed in kilowatt hours per year (kWh/year). The standard used by BEE to define the test procedures of colour television for energy star rating is IS 13384:1992 (Part 1 & Part 2) and IS 13900:1993 for CRT’s. The products under this standard shall meet the requirements of IS 616:2010 or IEC 60065:2005 (International Electrotechnical commission) for safety in order to qualify for the BEE label.
Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates.
Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. As per report the stock for fans in Indian households adds up to 246 million in the year 2008. While the number of units used per household is close to one for most appliances, it is about 1.8 per household for fans. The sales of fan in the same year are calculated to be 30 million (Boegle, Singh, & Sant). Previous research shows that ceiling fans accounted for about 6% of residential primary energy use in India in 2000, and this figure is expected to grow to 9% in 2020 (Sathaye, Phadke, Shah, & Letschert, October 2012).
In the Standard & Labelling (S&L) programme, the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has identified the product group ceiling fans as one of the appliance groups applicable for the voluntary scheme. The schedule specifies the requirements for participating in the energy efficiency Standards & Labelling (S&L) for ceiling fans covering 1,200mm sweep only.
Ceiling fans is one the appliance groups covered in the Standard & Labelling (S&L) programme. Fans with a sweep of 1,200mm are covered under voluntary rating scheme. The referred Indian Standard is ‘IS 374:1979 Specification for ceiling type fans and regulators with all amendments’.
The Indian standard IS-374 defines minimum efficacy (service value) levels for five different ceiling fan size categories, which are based on the fan sizes of 900mm, 1,050mm, 1,200mm, 1,400mm, 1,500mm. For ceiling fans the referred Indian standard is IS 374: 1979 (Specification for Ceiling Type fans and regulators) with all amendments. Parameters to be tested are:
Window AC and split-unit AC are widely used room air conditioners in India. Room ACs are available in the capacity range of 0.75 to 3 ton of refrigeration (TR) (2.63 kW to 10.55 kW). Best available technology, for example a 5 star rated AC will consume 1711 kWh in a year as compared to 2218 kWh consumed by 1 star rated AC for the same time resulting in energy savings of around 507 kWh in an year. Stock number of ACs for the year 2010 is about 6.9 million units Room air conditioner (AC) demand is growing rapidly at rate of 20% on average per year over the last ten years (2000-2010). The stock is expected to grow up to 37 million units by 2020 and the use of best available technologies could potentially lead to very large energy savings.
The indigenous manufacturing of air-conditioning and refrigeration products began in the late 1950s. Pre independence, i.e., before 1947, the country's needs were met by imports, as a large number of domestic refrigerators & air-conditioners were brought into the country by people upon returning from visits abroad. The real spurt in the indigenization came when India instituted a series of ongoing economic reforms, which is now known in India as the ‘Economic Liberalization of 1991’. The Indian government applied a series of deregulation measures, reducing the amount of government control, allowing foreign capital in, allowing greater privatization, lowering taxes etc. This brought a new growth in India’s industries. Air conditioning is strengthening its position in the Indian market due to factors such as increasing purchasing power parity, increasing electricity access, favourable weather conditions, growing Indian economy, social status, of Indian consumers and other factors.
Window AC and split-unit AC are widely used room air conditioners in India. Room ACs are available in the capacity range of 0.75 to 3 ton of refrigeration (TR) (2.63 kW to 10.55 kW). Thereby, 0.75 to 1 ton units constitute the ‘small’ category, 1 to 2 ton units the ‘medium’ category and units above 2 tons fall under the ‘large’ category.
Fixed speed air conditioners are commonly sold in India. In this type the compressor is either in on or off-mode. When it is on, it works at full capacity and consumes electricity according to its nominal design wattage. When the ambient temperature reaches the temperature level set in the AC thermostat, the compressor stops while the fan (in AC) continues to operate. When the thermostat senses that the temperature has increased above the defined threshold, the compressor starts again. Recent advancement in room air conditioners is the introduction of Inverter ACs. In this type, the compressor is always on, but draws less power or more power depending on the ambient air temperature and thermostat setpoint. This technology is currently available only in split air conditioners. In India, a room air conditioner is assumed to run for about 8 hours every day for 6 months (30 days assumed) in a year i.e. 1,440 hours/year.
Stock number of ACs for the year 2010 is about 6.9 million units. The stock is expected to grow up to 37 million units by 2020 (Phadke, Abhyankar and Shah, 2013). Room air conditioner (AC) demand is growing rapidly at rate of 20% on average per year over the last ten years (2000-2010). 1.5 TR capacity has been identified as the most selling model in the room air conditioners market. In the financial year 2011-12, split units accounted for 75% of the total room AC sales, while the window units (single packaged non-ducted) accounted for the remaining 25%. Room Air-Conditioners consumed an estimated 9.8 TWh of energy in 2011, including all segments and all tonnages. At an average a Room Air conditioner in stock consumed around 1,422 kWh/year.
The AC market in India is dominated by split unit ACs, with window, floor standing and cassette types occupying a small percentage. The most popular capacity range in the Room Air-Conditioner (RAC) segment is 1.5 TR (5.2 kW). Room ACs are under the mandatory category of the Standard & Labeling program and all the products sold in the market are star rated products (up to 11kW).
A 1.5 TR (5.2 kW) split room air-conditioner with a BEE 5star rating has a minimum EER of 3.5 whereas a 1star RAC has an EER band of 2.7 to 2.89 (Star Rating Band valid from 01 January 2016 to 31 December 2017). A 5star rated AC will consume 1,711 kWh in an year as compared to 2,218 kWh consumed by 1star rated AC for the same time ( operating hours taken into account is 8 hours every day for 6 months (30 days assumed) in a year i.e. 1,440 hours/year with a diversity factor of 0.8). So there would be a energy saving of around 507 kWh in an year.The following table gives a comparison between a typical inefficient appliance and the best available technology.
|Level||Typical appliance in stock||Typical inefficient appliance||Typical appliance purchased||Best Available Technology (BAT)||Expected future BAT|
|Typical capacity||5.2 kW||5.2 kW||5.2 kW||5.2 kW||5.2 kW|
|Type||Fixed speed AC||Fixed speed AC||Fixed speed AC||Inverter AC||Inverter AC|
|Qualitative classification of the provided service (on a scale 1-5)||3||4||4||5||5|
|Yearly energy consumption (kWh)||2,762||2,642||2,250||1,960||1,482|
|Purchase cost (INR)||35,000||45,000||47,000||51,500||54,000|
|Operation & Maintenance cost||3%||3%||3%||3%||3%|
|Labeling class||Not eligible for rating||2 star||3 star||5 star|
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) was constituted by the Government of India, under the Ministry of Power on 1st March 2002 to assist in developing policies and strategies towards the objective of decreasing India’s energy intensity. As a medium and long run measure to achieve this objective in the residential sector in May 2006 BEE launched the Standards and Labeling (S&L) program for home appliances. The S&L scheme has been implemented in India for 21 appliances, out of which 4 are under the mandatory scheme and 17 are under the voluntary scheme. Room Air-Conditioners are under the mandatory scheme.
MEPS for unitary type air-conditioners was set to an Energy Efficiency Ratio (Watt/Watt) star rating band of 2.30 to 2.49 in the year 2012 and 2013 which was subsequently revised to 2.50 to 2.69 in the year 2014 and 2015. Similarly, for split type air-conditioners the Energy Efficiency Ratio (Watt/Watt) star rating band for the year 2012 and 2013 was 2.50 to 2.69 which was subsequently revised to 2.70 to 2.89 in the years 2014 and 2015. For the purpose of determining the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of a model for labeling, two separate units of the nominated model shall be tested for capacity and energy consumption. Each unit shall be tested with sufficient test runs to enable a valid EER to be determined for that unit.
|Star Level||Minimum EER||Maximum EER|
There is a mandatory comparative labeling scheme Standard & Labeling (S&L) for different electrical appliances. The energy efficiency labels in India are given in the form a star rating – ranging from one-star to five-star; five-star being the most efficient. Star rating is mandatory for room air-conditioners. S&L specifies the energy labeling requirements for single-phase split and unitary air conditioners of the vapour compression type for household use up to a rated cooling capacity of 11 kW. An example of a printed energy label for an air conditioner is shown in figure below.
The label provides the following information:
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) schedule for rating Room Air-Conditioners uses the IS 1391 Part 1 and Part 2 standard for calculation of energy consumption and cooling capacity. For the purpose of determining the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of a mode, two separate units of the nominated model shall be tested for capacity and energy consumption.
Indian Standard IS 1391 Part 1 and Part 2 with all amendments is used to define the test procedure for testing of air conditioners is . Part 1 is for Unitary Air Conditioners and Part 2 is for Split Air Conditioners. In the revision of this standard, assistance has been obtained from ISO/D1S 5151 'Room air conditioners and heat pumps — Testing and rating'. For test procedures Indian Standard IS 1391 Part 1 and Part 2 are used.
Maximum Operating Conditions Test: To prove that the air conditioner is capable of operating satisfactorily under maximum operating conditions. The test conditions for capacity rating are as follows:
|Unitary AC||Split AC|
|Room air temperature (Dry bulb °C)||27||35|
|Room air temperature (Wet bulb °C)||19||24|
|Outside air temperature (Wet bulb °C)||35||46|
|Room air temperature (Wet bulb °C)||30||27|
|Test Frequency||Rated frequency||Rated frequency|
|Test voltage||Rated voltage||90 percent and 110 percent of name plate rating|
Procedure: The room air conditioner shall be operated continuously for 2 hours after the specified air temperatures and equilibrium condensate level have been established. All power to the room air conditioner shall then be cut off for 3 minutes and then restored for 1 hour. During this test no water should be sprinkled onto the condenser by external means other than what is condensed in the evaporator.
Capacity Rating Test: To determine the magnitude of the following functions:
Procedure for Testing Air Conditioner in Calorimeter: This procedure shall be applicable only when the air conditioner is tested in calorimeter. Two simultaneous methods for determining capacities shall be used. One method shall determine capacity on the room side and the other shall determine the capacity on the outdoor side. Test conditions shall be maintained until equilibrium has been reached, and maintained for not less than 1 hour before recording data for the capacity test. The test shall then be run for 1 hour recording data every 10 minutes, giving 7 sets of readings.
The refrigerator market in India is divided into two major segments, the direct cool (DC) refrigerators and the frost free refrigerators (FFR) variants. The frost free variant of refrigerator contains a heating element to prevent the formation of frost in the freezer. This heating element consumes additional energy, resulting in higher power consumption by FFRs than DC refrigerators along with a 30-50% increase in the cost as well. Refrigerators find year-long application in India operating for 24 hours a day and for 365 days a year. Refrigerators in India consumed an estimated 14.75 TWh of energy in 2011, including all segments and all volumes while the energy consumption of the FFR segment stood at 6.42 TWh in 2010-2011. Typical inefficient models consume almost double the amount of energy consumed by the Best Available Technologies and hence hold immense potential for energy savings in this sector by shifting to BAT.
The refrigerator market in India is divided into two major segments, the direct cool (DC) refrigerators and the frost free refrigerators (FFR) variants. The frost free variant of refrigerator contains a heating element to prevent the formation of frost in the freezer. This heating element consumes additional energy, resulting in higher power consumption by FFRs than DC refrigerators along with a 30-50% increase in the cost as well. Standalone freezers are virtually non-existent in the Indian domestic market.
The tocal stock of refrigerators across different segments was estimated to be 33.3 million in 2006 and registered a massive growth in 5 years taking the stock to approximaltey 57.6 million units by the year 2010 (The World Bank, 2008). The stock of frost-free segement in 2010 was 13.8 million units. According to the Bureau of Energy Efficiency this would expand to 18.8 million units by 2020-21. The sales of FFRs stood at 1.5 million units in 2010-11 and 1.7 million units in the consecutive year, with a predicted CAGR of 31.7% from 2012 to 2015. By 2013 the refrigerator market in India had grown to $1.2 billion.
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) launched the Standards and Labeling (S&L) program for home appliances in May 2006 . The S& L scheme has been implemented in India for 21 appliances, out of which 4 are under the mandatory scheme and 17 are under the voluntary scheme. Direct Cool refrigerators are currently under the voluntary scheme, whereas Frost Free Refrigerators are under the mandatory scheme.
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) schedule for rating frost-free refrigerators uses the IS 15750:2006 standard for calculating the tested energy consumption in Watt-hour (Wh) per 24 hours for the appliance, which is then further used to calculate the predicted annual energy consumption (PAEC). This forms the basis of further calculation for rating the appliance. The standards specify the test conditions for calculating the energy consumption.
Power for lighting accounts for 18% of all power consumption in India, as against 10-12% in developed countries (Indiastat, n.d.). The lighting market landscape in India is divided into incandescent bulbs, fluorescent lighting in the forms of tubular fluorescent lamps (TFLs) and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and light emitting diode (LED) lamps.
The market trend is rapidly changing in favour of fluorescent lighting and LED lamps. For example, due to the growth in market for CFL lighting the manufacturing capacity of these lamps has gone up from 19 million units in 2002 to 730 million pieces per annum in 2011, in India (Electric Lamp and Component Manufacturers Association of India, 2013). The LED market is expected to show a CAGR of almost 30% between 2016 and 2021 (TechSci Research, 2016), reaching a size of almost USD s1,457.8 million by 2019 (Research and Markets, 2014). The government is also taking significant steps to reduce energy consumption in India due to lighting, like BEE’s S&L programme for TFLs and LEDs, the Bachat Lamp Yojna etc. Under the Bachat Lamp Yojana scheme, implemented by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), power distribution companies (DISCOMs) distribute CFLs to residential consumers in exchange for incandescent bulbs and INR1 5 (around 20 EUR cents), which are procured from certain suppliers. In return these suppliers are awarded saleable certified emission reduction credits (Bijli Bachao Team, 2015).
The lighting market landscape in India is divided into incandescent bulbs, fluorescent lighting in the forms of tubular fluorescent lamps (TFLs) and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and light emitting diode (LED) lamps. Incandescent bulbs, even though highly energy inefficient as compared to even fluorescent lighting, still enjoy a significant market share in India’s lighting market. According to the 2011 Census of India there were still 1.1 million households in India with no source of lighting. Just over half the rural households used electricity for lighting. This means that the market is hugely under penetrated and the potential for energy saving in lighting is also massive.
The typical lighting appliance purchased in India is still the highly inefficient incandescent bulb, primary due to its extremely low upfront purchase cost as compared to other more efficient options. Within this type bulbs below the wattage of 60W are the ones with the highest demand volume (Indiastat, n.d.). Its life is also very low as compared to other lighting appliance options in the market. The BEE has launched S&L programs for TFLs and LEDs, hence, if MEPS were to be made mandatory in the current scenario a 1 star TFL would be the least efficient model in the market. The best available technology currently is the LED lamp with the longest life and highest efficacy. It’s cost has come down significantly due to government initiatives and large scale orders. This technology is expected to improve considerably by 2020, with decreasing luminous efficacy (lumens provided per Watt of power consumed), and decreasing prices due to government initiatives.
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) was constituted by the Government of India, under the Ministry of Power on 1st March 2002 to assist in developing policies and strategies towards the objective of decreasing India’s energy intensity. As a medium and long run measure to achieve this objective in the residential sector in May 2006 BEE launched the Standards and Labeling (S&L) program for home appliances. The S&L scheme has been implemented in India for 21 appliances, out of which 4 are under the mandatory scheme and 17 are under the voluntary scheme. Tubular Fluorescent Lamps fall under the mandatory scheme of energy efficiency labeling. LED lamps currently fall under the voluntary scheme but are soon to be included in the mandatory scheme as well.
Testing procedures and rating schemes are for TFLs and LEDs are described in documents released by the BEE, schedules 2 and 20 of BEE star rating appliances, respectively. Both of these standards draw mostly on Indian Standards for testing procedures of lighting fixtures, with one or two international code references. Both types of lamps are rated based on their luminous efficacy.
The BEE energy efficiency rating scheme is described in BEE’s Schedule-2 for mandatory appliances. For methods of testing the schedule refers to IS 2418 (part I and part II) – 1977. Energy efficiency rating is awarded to lamps based on its efficacy values after 100, 2,000 and 3,500 hours of usage. A star rating is awarded after each period of consumption. The final rating is the average of these three ratings, rounded off to the nearest integer.
For LED lamps schedule-20 of voluntary appliances describes the scheme for star rating. The schedule refers to a number of other standards for testing. These are IS16102:2012 part I and part II, IS 16106:2012, IS 14700 (Part 3/Sec 2):1999, IS 16108 and IEC 62612. Same as the schedule for TFL, the energy efficiency rating for LEDs is also done according to the efficacy (lm/W). But unlike the label for TFL, LED lamps display the lm/W rating for the specific lamp on the label, along with its star rating.
The market for washing machines in India grew from about 600,000 units in 1996-97 to almost 1.4 million units in 2005-06, with a predicted market of 1.6 million units in the consecutive year. This would register a CAGR (Compound annual growth rate) of over 10%. In 2007-08 the estimated market for washing machines is between 2.0 to 2.3 million units. For the 5-year period between 2006-07 and 2011-12 the market for washing machines was estimated to grow at 9.3% (Indiastat, n.d.). The stock of all washing machines in India in 2011 stood at 16.5 million units, out of which rural and urban India contribute 2.2 and 14.3 million units respectively (The World Bank, 2008). According to a DuPont report published in 2013, “Indian Consumer Laundry Study”, only 8.8% of all Indian households owned a washing machine.
In 2011 refrigerators consumed about 672 GWh of energy in India, which was only about 4.6% of the energy consumption by washing machines in the same year. In the year 2021 this figure is estimated to go up to 2,742 GWh. The average per unit energy consumption is considered to be 40.7 kWh in 2011 (The World Bank, 2008).
Washing machines have continuously and growingly been finding their way into Indian households. It has become a necessity in the daily lives of many people and is no longer considered only as luxury good. Its demand has been fuelled, like other consumer durables in the country, by the availability of innovative models from domestic and global brands, increasing disposable incomes, increasing investment by the government in infrastructure and a changing household arrangement. Washing machines in India are available in three major segments: semi-automatic, fully automatic front loading and fully automatic top-loading. Dryers, i.e. machines for the sole purpose of drying clothes are virtually non-existent in the Indian market as of now. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency has put washing machines under the voluntary scheme of its energy star rating program.
The stock of semi-automatic machines remains the largest amongst all washing machines in India due to a lower price factor. But as disposable incomes of middle-class households are increasing, and due to improving technology and energy efficiency of fully automatic washing machines and significantly lower water consumption per washing cycle, top-loading fully automatic machines’ sales are growing. Fully automatic machines also clean soiled clothes much better than semi-automatic machines. Front-loading fully automatic machines give the best soil removal from amongst all three variants.
The standards and labeling scheme (S&L) introduced by the BEE in 2006 included washing machines under the voluntary scheme. BEE’s schedule-12 specifies testing procedures and criteria for obtaining star labeling for both semi-automatic and fully automatic washing machines (Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 2016). This schedule has not been revised to make the criteria stricter like the schedules for appliances in the mandatory scheme. Compliance with these standards is rare due to the scheme being voluntary. Virtually none of the washing machines in the market presently have opted to obtain the star label. There are no mandatory requirements or MEPS for washing machines.
The BEE schedule for rating washing machines uses the IS 14155 standard, with all its amendments, for calculating the energy consumption of the appliance in kilowatt per kg of load (kWh/kg). This is further used to assign a star rating to the appliance. The standards specify the test conditions for calculating the energy consumption.
The IS 14155 itself significantly draws upon several other standards. These standards have been mentioned in the foreword of the document. IS 14155 draws upon the requirements of IS 6390 (Part 1): 1983 for machines without tumbler dryers and spin extractors, and IS 6390 (Part 3): 1992 for requirements for spin extractions. For safety requirements of household electrical appliances IS 302-2-4 (1993) and IS 302-2-7 (1993) have been referred. Assistance has been derived from IEC 60456 (1974).