- Buildings Guide
- Policy Guide
- Appliances Guide
The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat (NMSH) is a set of strategies, which maps out long term actions to mitigate climate change. It is one of the eight missions released by the Prime Minister of India in June 2008 under the National Action Plan on Climate Change. It is highly advisory in nature and provides guidelines to key actors like the central and state governments, city-level administration, government certification bodies, research universities and other government agencies for implementing climate change mitigation measures. It maps out long term strategies and actions to be taken to promote sustainability in habitats through promotion of energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings; water, waste water and solid waste management, and through urban transport and urban planning.
For the promotion of energy efficiency in buildings it promotes the development of national energy performance standards and their integration into building bye-laws, capacity building and R&D objectives. For different components of the mission estimated investments needed for pilot projects over roughly an eight year period from 2009 to 2017 are also indicated, with those relating to energy efficiency amounting to little over INR 1.17 billion (Ministry of Urban Development, 2015).
The specific aim of the NMSH with regard to energy efficiency is promoting energy efficiency in both commercial and residential buildings. This is further divided into different components, namely:
The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) is the nodal ministry for this mission. It also heads the Mission Implementation and Monitoring Group, which is responsible for designing and implementing policies, suggesting course corrections, monitoring and review of the progress of the Mission and sanctioning projects in the pursuance of the Mission’s objectives. The Group may be headed by the Secretary of the MoUD with senior level representation from other ministries too. However, significant responsibility also lies with the State governments as amendments to existing laws have to be made to achieve the Mission’s objectives.
For building energy efficiency the mission seeks to harmonize the requirements of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) of 2007 with those of the National Building Code (NBC) of 2005 drafted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) guidelines of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, to mandate minimum energy performance standards for residential and commercial buildings.
The National Action Plan on Climate Change entails eight different national missions (i.e. frameworks and roadmaps) with advisory recommendations. One mission is the NMSH. The other seven missions are:
According to the Ministry of Urban Development’s document on the NMSH the building sector’s energy consumption rose from a low 14 per cent in the 1970s to about a third of the total national energy consumption in 2004-2005. Of the 33 per cent that the building sector consumed 13.3 per cent was contributed by the residential sector (Ministry of Urban Development, 2015). By 2013 the building sector was consuming nearly 40 per cent of the national electricity consumption (Centre for Science and Environment, 2014).
In the residential and commercial sector space heating/cooling, water heaters and lighting appliances were the major consumers of energy. Mandatory compliance to ECBC has a saving potential of almost 1.7 billion units annually (Ministry of Urban Development 2015).
As the name suggests it is a national mission.
The NMSH does not give any mandatory minimum energy performance standards. It only provides voluntary design guidelines for building systems.
The sub-committee for the development of National Sustainable Habitat parameters for energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings released a report in May 2011 with model energy efficiency guidelines for the integration into building bye-laws. Urban local bodies create these energy efficient building bye-laws. They cover lighting systems, mechanical HVAC systems, building electrical systems, building renewable energy, low flow plumbing and building envelope (Sub-Committee for development of National Sustainable Habitat parameters for energy efficiency in Residential and Commercial Buildings 2011). For all of the systems the guidelines refer to the NBC or the ECBC. For example the guidelines state that the HVAC equipment shall meet the prescribed efficiencies in the ECBC. Similarly it states that LPD levels in buildings shall not exceed those given in the ECBC. However, these guidelines also address low-flow plumbing fixtures and renewable energy integration, both of which are not part of the ECBC. For low-flow plumbing it refers to the ‘Green Plumbing Code of India’. For renewable energy integration it states that, for example, 15% of lighting load group housings and multi-storey housings shall be met through renewable energy. Commercial, industrial, institutional and mixed use buildings shall meet 5% of their lighting load through renewable energy.
The guidelines also specify external wall, roof assembly and window specifications in terms of their U-values for different climates. Apart from this it also gives window shading design guidelines according to latitude by considering the horizontal and vertical sun angles.
The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat (NMSH) is one of the eight national missions released in 2008 under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). Each of these missions seeks to exploit the climate change mitigation potential in various sectors. Some other national missions under the NAPCC are: National Solar Mission, National Water Mission and National Mission in Energy Efficiency.
The NMSH itself is also a policy package, which consists of energy efficiency promotion in commercial and residential sector buildings; solid waste management, wastewater and water management; and urban transport and urban planning.
The mission plays an advisory role for the development of energy efficiency codes and standards and harmonizing them to set minimum performance standards for buildings. Pilot projects on energy efficient buildings, raising awareness on benefits of energy efficiency in buildings would be complimentary actions.
For planning the urban landscape holistically and in an efficient manner capacity building measures are carried out. Capacity building and outreach to create awareness about green buildings and its benefits, support R&D for this sector and incentivize adoption are hence, important objectives.
For all these elements the MoUD is the nodal ministry. It is charged with implementing the Mission objectives with support from local bodies and governments. The Inter-Ministerial Group approves and sanctions projects that aim to meet the objectives of this Mission. It takes into the aegis of its recommendations all the relevant ministries, like the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Ministry of Transport (MoT), Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR)etc.
The Mission can be seen as an opportunity to streamline all the various policies of the government pushing sustainability in habitats. This is the innovative element of this mission.
It has been recommended that to most effectively implement the Mission the strategies must move from the sector-level to individual city level and further, to the ward level. This involves planning at the ward level keeping in view the overall objectives of the Mission. This will need extensive support from individual state governments and local bodies.
Furthermore, instead of introducing fresh guidelines under the Mission existing guidelines can be modified and overlapping policies can be converged. This, along with a decentralization of activities is highly desirable.
Also quantified impacts of the Mission’s impact and progress in its objectives needs to be done on a regular basis more accurately, and be made readily available to key stakeholders.
The following pre-conditions are necessary to implement NMSH:
Agencies or other actors responsible for implementation
The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) is the nodal ministry for the Mission’s implementation.
The inter-ministerial group (IMG) sets policies for implementation and monitors and reviews progress of the Mission. It also sanctions projects based on proposals and recommendations submitted to it by the Mission Implementation and Monitoring Group, which itself is supported by various organizations like the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Urban Transport Division of the MoUD, Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization (CPHEEO) etc.
Further, the State Level Apex Coordination Committee coordinates the Mission’s activities at individual state level, supported by nodal agencies.
The funding for implementation is provided through the MoUD. The Mission had a planned budget of roughly INR 542 billion over an approximately eight year period between 2009 and 2017.
According to the Indian 12th Plan (period between 2012 and 2017) the budget was estimated to be INR 9.5 billion for this period (IFMR Lead: Centre for Development Finance , 2015).
The Inter-Ministerial Group (IMG) approves projects and activities to reach the Mission’s objectives based on the proposals and recommendations by the Mission Implementation and Monitoring Group (MIMG), supported by various other organizations, like the BEE, the CPHEEO and other research institutions. The IMG has senior level representation from relevant ministries like the MoEF, MoT, MoWR etc. Approved projects may then be handed over to the relevant ministry, which are implement by the government agencies. For example ECBC related activities of development and outreach may be implemented by the Ministry of Power through the BEE.
Implementation of the Mission’s projects and their progress is monitored at individual State level by the State Level Apex Bodies.
The NMSH does not have a quantified target.
A Mission Implementation and Monitoring Group (Government actor) exists for monitoring activities. The Program Monitoring and Evaluation System is a web-enables system which records progress on the Mission.
Dynamic market transformation and or innovation
The Mission seeks to provide funding to R&D activities for green products and materials. Through development and implementation of energy efficiency guidelines and outreach for the same it seeks to create a healthy market for energy efficient buildings.
Minimising snap-back effects
The Mission lays emphasis on more robust methods of creating awareness in all of society’s circles about sustainable practices and their benefits, like capacity building, educating stakeholders, modifying curriculums in Universities to include green building practices. This approach aims to minimize snap-back effects.
Creating spill-over effects
The Mission targets a wide spectrum of activities to increase the sustainability of habitats, like development of national codes and standards and facilitating their implementation, supporting R&D in research institutions, training and outreach for professionals, building owners and students. Hence, the Mission aims at expanding awareness, and thus, expanding demand for sustainable infrastructure. If implemented efficiently the Mission will be able to procreate a domino effect which will take these programs to all states and major urban centres, and be responsible for creating similar actions with little further affirmative action.
Design for sustainability aspects
The Mission aims to improve sustainability of habitats by promoting sustainability in buildings, water management, waste management, and urban transport and planning.
The following barriers have been experienced during the implementation of the policy:
The following measures have been undertaken to overcome the barriersThe Mission seeks to overcome these barriers through outreach programs not only for professionals and building owners but for students as well. Promoting energy efficiency standards and rating systems is one of the key objectives of the Mission.
Timelines for various objectives of the Mission vary. All objectives’ timelines lie between the span of 2009 and 2017.
Under the NMSH promoting the development and implementation of ECBC is mentioned as one of the major goals. It is estimated that nationwide implementation of ECBC could save up to 1.7 billion kWh of electricity annually (USAID Eco III Project, 2011).
Activities of the BEE toward development and promotion of ECBC would be met through the program. Estimating a saving of 5.07 billion kWh between 2012 and 2017 (Bureau of Energy Efficiency, n.d.), an average annual saving of 1.014 billion kWh is estimated.
At an average rate of INR 5 per kWh that is charged in India for commercial electricity consumption, a saving of 5.07 billion units between 2012 and 2017 through ECBC compliance targets would achieve a savings of nearly INR 25.4 billion.